Table of contents
    Oygen depletion  and ammonia spikes will always be the main reason for fatalities in the pond. Dissolved oxygen levels depend on temperature, stability of nutrients,water movement, depth, surface area of the pond. Over fertilisation or feeding can cause imbalance as well as ammonia spikes.

    The nutrients will be used by the pond plants and the algae in the ponds, these single celled low plant life  are often referred to as phytoplankton and unless the pond has heavy vegetation growth the bulk of the nutrients will be used by the algal blooms. In a healthy pond, the plants and algae produce more oxygen during day light from photosynthesis than they consume during hours of darkness, however some times the algae can peak to maximum density, consume all the available nutrients and die off!  this temporary die off will produce bacterial decomposition and loss of oxygen, both lethal to the fish.
    Photosynthesis is also effected by the weather, cloudy or still days that dont allow even mixing through out the levels of the pond, monitoring temperature is of paramount importance, higher the temperature, less dissolved oxygen and higher the metabolism of the fish, aeration can be increased mechanically , being warned of impending problems can save many fish from suffocation.Different algaes from different times of the year can also cause temporary die offs. this can also cause massive changes in pH and in turn from the die offs ammonia.

    Conclusion, temperature,  pH  ,ammonia are all monitored  with a seneye giving early warning alerts .


    Oxygenators are an essential part of maintaining a healthy pond , plants such as elodea crispa, horn wort just a few examples that can be planted and once established will spread rapidly, others can float.
    planted in containers, provide cover, shade with their pads, produce colourful flowers, many varieties, select the ones that appeal to you, remember to consider the size of your pond.
    planted in shallow areas, on shelves etc, provide interest, colour , examples are Iris, Flag, Marsh Marigold and the Arrow Head.
    Floating plants,

    These also provide shade, colour from flowering,maintenance free , examples can be fairy moss, bladderwort,water soldiers, water chestnuts etc.During winter water soldiers will sink to the bottom of the pond.

    Marsh plants such as bull rushes can provide interest if the pond has been extended to provide a bog like area, planting at the edge of the bog area.

    NB when filling baskets always put gravel on top of the plant media to prevent disturbance when submerged, liners for baskets can be obtained along with all the requirements you need from your local fish store.







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